A diagnostic device that measures the way light waves travel through the eye and any distortion the eyes optical system creates as the light passes through. Used in laser eye surgery to calculate wavefront guided treatments.
Where the eyes ability to focus from distance to near ojects and from near to distance does not work correctly. Disorders can be caused by a number of symptoms such as: eye strain, headache, difficulty concentrating (especially reading), blurred visi
Age Related Macular Degeneration is caused by damage to the retinal cones (the part of the eye that transfers images and colour to the brain). A gradual loss of central vision occurs leaving just the peripheral vision for seeing.
The body's immune system is programmed to protect the body from foreign bodies e.g. pollen. Allergy symptoms can also affect the eyes, usually showing as redness of the eyes, tears, swollen eyelids or itching.
This is sometimes described as an 'Eye Stroke'. It is caused when a blood clot restricts blood flow to the eyes causing temporary vision loss. It usually affects just one eye.
Also known as Lazy Eye. If the central vision in one eye is less developed than the other, the brain becomes dependent on the information from the good dominant eye. An eye patch is used to help correct Amblyopia at an early age. The two main causes of lazy eye are Strabismus and Anisometroia. It can also be treated in adults using Neurovision.
A condition where the iris in the eye is either absent or partially absent. It is usually a congential defect in the eye and causes photophobia and poor vision.
A condition where pupils are of unequal size. Causes are various including: a natural event in the population without a known cause, head or eye trauma, previous intraocular surgery, an infection of the membranes around the brain, an intercranial tum
A common condition in people with impaired vision where the prescription needed for good vision is very different for each eye due to the differences in refractive power.
This is a specific protien that is initiated by the body's immune system to help fight foreign substances, toxins and infections inside the body.
A substance that restricts oxidation thereby guarding persons from the effects of 'free radicals'. Free radicals are molecules with one or more unpaired electrons and they can destroy cells and can be part of the cause of various diseases. Antioxidan
This is the clear fluid filling the front of the eye, located between the cornea and the iris. It supplies nutrients to the cornea and the lens. The fluid is created by the ciliary body. If this fluid is not able to drain away freely, pressure builds up and can cause Glaucoma. If this is not overcome, damage to the optic nerve can occur resulting in loss of vision.
This describes fatty/oily deposits causing an opaque ring around the periphery of the cornea. It is a condition of elderly people but can also occur in people under the age of forty and is an indication of excessive level of cholesterol in the blood
Meaning not quite a spherical shape. In vision terms people who suffer high perscriptions usually prefer aspheric glasses as they can be produced using thin lenses and lightweight frames and reduce eye magnification. Aspheric contact lenses are designed to overcome astigmatism and can also be used as a multi-focal lens.
A surgical procedure involving the cutting of the cornea to facilitate making it more spherical after it has healed and thereby reducing astigmatism.
Where the curvature of the cornea has developed in an asymmetrical shape (shaped like a rugby ball instead of a football). Consequently light entering the eye is focussed on two points on the retina rather than just one, which causes blurred vision. Astigmatism also causes double vision, squinting, eyestrain, distorted vision and shadowing around letters.
Used to describe a loss of opacity in the corneal stroma and Bowman's membrane. It causes vision loss.
This describes the best vision you can achieve using corrective glasses. It is a measure taken from the standard Snellen eye table. If you have bad eyesight with an uncorrrected reading of 20/300 but you are capable of seeing 20/20 using glasses then your Best corrected visual acuity is 20/20.
Where a lens is created with two focussing areas; one for close vision and one for distance vision. Lenses like this can be created for both glasses and contact lenses.
The ability to focus on an object using two eyes simultaneously, thereby providing depth perception and clear focus.
A material that is able to be placed inside the body or organs and not cause any adverse reaction. Intra Ocular lenses for example are boicompatible as they can be inserted inside the eye without any reaction from the body.
An inflammation of the eyelid(s), usually around the eyelashes. Blepharitis can be caused by a number of conditions including: rosacea, dermatitis and allergies. The usual symptoms are a pink or red, sore looking eyelid, eyelid pain, swelling or crus
In addition to inflammation of the eyelid, the conjunctivitis also causes swelling with infection, tearing, burning around the eyes and severe discomfort.
Very small channels found at the start of the tear ducts through which tears drain until they pass out into the nose.
An inflammation of a tear duct, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Symptoms for canaliculitis include a pink or red swollen eye, discharge from the eye and swollen eyelids close to the nose.
During cataract surgery the surgeon makes an incision into the capsule that holds the natural crystalline lens of the eye (a capsulotomy), which allows for the natual lens to be removed and substituted for an artificial intra ocular lens.
A clouding over of the eyes' natural lens, the most common cause being age. Other causes are high exposure to the sun's ultra violet light. Smoking is also an identified cause. The symptoms are varied but can include: blurred vision, halos, glare around lights, cloudiness of vision and dimness of colour.
An inflammation around the eye. There are a number of types. Orbital cellulitis affects the areas around the eyeball causing a bulging eye which should be dealt with immediately, while Pre-septal cellulitis affects the eye lid and other parts around
Used to describe a refractive laser eye surgery complication where a small area of cornal tissue is left untreated in the ablation zone. This can cause double vision and sight distortion.
The fine layers of blood vessels that are situated between the white of the eyes (sclera) and the retina. Their function is to maintain a supply of nourishment to the back to the eye.
The ciliary body holds the natural lens inside the eye in place and also causes it to change shape so that fine focussing is possible (accomodation). It also produces aqueous humor.
Fibrous protein present in the eye that makes up the structure of the cornea clear at the front of the eye.
The inability to distinguish specific colours from the colour spectrum. Colour blindness is an inherited condition and is prevalent in men more than women.
Symptoms of computer vision syndrome include headaches, shoulder and neck pain, eyestrain, dry eyes, blurred vision, pink or red eyes or even light sensitivity. It is important to get an assessment for these conditions as the symptoms are also common
Procedure in which a surgeon applies radio waves to the cornea to heat the collagen in the cornea's periphery. This causes it to shrink, thereby reducing hyperopia.
Found in the retina. A cone is a photosensitive receptor that helps a person differentiate colours and there are approximately 6,400,000 in the human retina.
The conjunctiva is a thin clear membrane that overlays the inner surface of the eyelid and the white part of the eyeball (the sclera).
This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which causes redness of the eye and discharge from the eye. A burning sensation and itching can occur along with light sensitivity and eye pain. It can occur in one or both eyes.
A transparent material that is usually placed on the surface of the eye (cornea) that is designed to help refract light through the eye and onto the retina in the correct way.
Contact lens problems can occur and they can range from minor irritations to sight impairment, and include protein build-up, dirt, dust or debris on the lens, a damaged lens, infections caused by incorrect lens cleaning procedures. Symptoms of contac
Used by contact lens wearers to help with the comfort of wearing contact lenses.
The ability of the eye to perceive differences between an object and its background, i.e. the ability to identify a blue object on a blue background.
Where a person's eyes begin to turn inwards. Performing close up tasks like reading may cause eye strain and blurred vision.
The transparent front part of the external structure of the eye covering the iris, the pupil and the sclera. The dome-like shape of the cornea delivers approximately two-thirds of the optical power of the eye. Light passes into the eye through the cornea. It is reflected back out of the eye, making the iris and pupil of the eye visible.
Usually caused by contact lens wear or a sports injury or dirt or other foreign body infecting the eye. Blurred vision, grittiness, eye pain and light sensitivity.
A condition where the clear window at the front of the eye (the cornea) loses its transparency. The surface of the cornea is no longer smooth which causes blurred vision, light sensitivity, eye pain and vision loss.
A swelling of the cornea that can be as a result of intra ocular surgery, high intra ocular pressure, contact lens problems, or other corneal dystrophies. Symptoms can include halos around bright lights, eye pain, foreign body sensation or vision los
Continuing breakdown of the corneal epithelium. Symptoms include blurred vision, foreign body sensation and eye pain or discomfort.
Vision correcting elements like corneal rings or contacts that are placed inside the eye structure to correct vision.
Where a translucent or small cloudy area is found in the cornea caused by scarring or an infection. Sufferers can experience halos around lights, vision loss and a visible cloudy spot on the eye.
These are used in corrective surgery. A surgeon inserts a clear plastic ring into the cornea which then reshapes it to help with focussing the light entering the eye on to the retina.
This is measured using a corneal topographer which directs light onto the surface of the eye and then is able to accurately measure the light as it is reflected back into the device so that a detailed corneal map can be created showing it's curvature and any irregularities it may contain in its structure. The corneal topographer produces a coloured map that clearly shows the variations in shape and height of the cornea. Very good for consulting on astigmatism, laser eye surgery and specialist contact lens fitting.
This condition is where both eyes are misaligned and pointing inwards. It is a type of strabismus.
This condition describes when the eyes macula can be affected by an excessive amount of fluid in the eye and cause the macula to swell.
This condition describes the inflammation of the tear gland. The cause is usually a viral or bacterial infection. The resulting symptoms include red eyelids or swelling around the eyes.
Condition caused by the swelling or inflammation of the nasolacrimal or tear sac. Symptoms can include sticky eyes, eye discomfort and tearing.
This condition is where the tear duct becomes blocked, causing tears and some discharge.
A disease of the eye that occurs in diabetics. It causes swelling in the eye, and discharge of fluids and disolved fats into the macula. It can cause loss of vision and blindness.
A condition affecting long term diabetes sufferers. Retinal blood vessels begin to discharge which affects the functioning of the macula. Blurred vision may be the first symptom or a larger number of floaters but can progress to loss of vision.
Caused by weakening of blood vessels in the eye, the bleeding into the vitreous humor obscures clear vision and may require surgery.
Used as a measure for refraction or bending of light through a substance. Opticians use diopter measurements to describe prescriptions for contact lenses and spectacles to provide clear vision for patients. A positive number would describe a long-sig
Diplopia is used to describe double vision. This occurs when one or both eyes percieve two images at the same time.
The optic disc at the back of the eye is where the optic nerve is attached to the back of the retina. Bleeding around the edge of the disc can occur and is one indication of glaucoma.
Some contact lenses are now produed so that they can be thrown away after a short period of wear. This time period can range from just a day to a couple of weeks.
Used to describe the permeability and thickness of a contact lens. The Dk value is the oxygen permeability of the contact lens material. The t value indicates its thickness which affects the transfer of oxygen through the contact lens.
In reference to glaucoma a drainage angle relates to the drainage channel for the aqueous humor in the front part of the eye. Reduced drainage can naturally lead to higher intraocular pressure which is linked to glaucoma. Open angle glaucoma occurs w
Describes a deposit in the eye that can be white or yellow. Druse is sometimes linked to macular degeneration.
Occurs when the body in unable to produce enough lubrication and moisture for the eye. This is usually a temporary condition.
Dry eye can occur through aging or long term contact lens wear. It can also be part of a number of systemic diseases. Dry eye syndrome can cause eye pain, a burning sensation in the eyes, itching and frequent blinking.
This describes the condition of an eye with normal vision where light is correctly focused on the right part of the retina at the back of the eye.
The recession of an eyeball into the orbit. Causes include developmental problems, trauma and inflammation.
An abnormal inward turning of an eyelid (usually the lower lid), which causes the lashes to rub on the ocular surface; usually due to aging. Additional symptoms include eye or lid pain or discomfort, redness, itching, tearing and vision loss if there
Thin layer of scar tissue on the retina which forms as a result of changes in the vitreous gel. Also called a macular pucker. In its early stages, an epiretinal membrane is often asymptomatic, but some people have blurred vision. There may be symptom
Inflammation of the episclera. The cause is usually unknown, but episcleritis may be associated with some systemic (e.g. autoimmune) diseases. Symptoms include a red eye, pain or discomfort, light sensitivity and tearing.
The cornea's outer layer of cells. The only layer of the cornea that has the ability to replicate if damaged.
A form of 'squint' or strabismus where one or both eyes point inward, so the eyes are "crossed." Commonly erroneously referred to as 'lazy eye'. Management options include glasses, orthoptic exercises or surgery.
An instrument that uses ultraviolet wavelength of light to vaporize and remove tissue from the eye's surface during vision correction procedures. Rather than burning or cutting material, the excimer laser adds enough energy to disrupt the molecular bonds of the surface tissue, which effectively disintegrates into the air in a tightly controlled manner through ablation rather than burning.
A form of 'squint' or strabismus where one or both eyes point outward. Management includes orthoptic exercises or surgery.
Currently, these contact lenses are approved to be worn without removal from 1 week to 1 month, meaning some people will be comfortable sleeping with them in their eyes. Sometimes referred to as continuous wear. Known risks include corneal infection.
In optics this means the capability of the eye to automatically focus from distance to near objects and from near to distance objects.
An abnormal growth or mass that occurs in or next to the eye. Tumors can be both benign and malignant and primary or secondary (from other organs). They include the dermoid cyst, capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, choroidal melanoma, retinob
Also called hyperopia. Occurs when the length of the eye is too short or the optical power of the cornea and lens too low. To far-sighted people, near objects are blurry, but far objects are in focus.
A laser device that creates bursts of laser energy at an extremely fast rate measured in terms of a unit known as a femtosecond (one quadrillionth of a second). These ultra fast energy pulses precisely target and break apart tissue or other substances at a molecular level, without damaging adjacent areas. Commonly used in corneal refractive surgery e.g. to create LASIK flaps.
Floaters are very common and may look like clouds, strands, webs, spots, squiggles, wavy lines or other shapes and often move in the field of vision. As the eye ages, the gelatinous vitreous humor begins to liquefy in the center of the gel. Floaters
A staining agent that becomes a bright, fluorescent yellow-green when in contact with alkaline substances. A fluorescein dye solution is routinely used by Optometrists and Ophthalmologists as a diagnostic agent in contact lens fitting and assessment
An imaging test that involves injecting fluorescent yellow-green dye into the veins. When the dye reaches interior regions of the eye, it provides opportunity for high contrast photography or other imaging of blood vessels. This is particularly usefu
A foreign object or particle found in the eye. Symptoms include foreign gritty irritation, eye pain or discomfort, a red or pink eye, tearing, frequent blinking, blurred vision, discharge, light sensitivity and vision loss.
A depression in the retina that contains only cones (not rods), and that provides acute eyesight. Ideally the area of the retina where light is focused to form an image.
Also called planned replacement. Technically, this is any contact lens that is thrown away after a moderately short period of time. Among most eye care practitioners, "disposable" usage ranges from one day to two weeks, while "frequent replacement" l
An eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently impacting vision in the affected eye(s) starting with peripheral vision loss and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increas
An eye disorder associated with abnormalities of the thyroid gland; symptoms include eyelid retraction, bulging eyes, light sensitivity, eye discomfort, double vision, vision loss, a red or pink eye and a limited ability to move the eyes.
Rarely worn now, hard lenses are made of PMMA material. Cannot transmit oxygen through the lens to the cornea and often cause warpage of the cornea's shape. Compared with modern soft and rigid lenses, they are less healthy to wear long-term.
Typically causes infection in the corneal stroma with characteristic dendrite shaped lesions. Symptoms include pain, redness and reduced vision. The virus stays dormant and infection can be triggered by ill health or trauma.
Condition where one iris of an eye is a different colour to the other, or where one eye is more than one colour.
Type of lens with a higher index of refraction, meaning that light travels faster through the lens to reach the eye than with traditional glass or plastic. It is denser, so the same amount of optical correction occurs with less material - so the lens
Higher-order aberrations are visual problems that cannot be diagnosed using a traditional eye exam, which tests only for acuteness of vision. Severe aberrations can cause significant vision impairment. These aberrations include starbursts, ghosting,
A protein that can be released as part of the body's immune system responses during an allergic reaction. Presence of histamine can lead to inflammation and swelling, which is why antihistamines often are prescribed for allergy symptoms.
Condition characterized by a small pupil, ptosis (drooping upper eyelid) and an abnormal lack of facial perspiration (all on the same side of the face); Horner's syndrome is caused by injury to the sympathetic nerves of the face.
Also called far-sightedness. Condition in which the length of the eye is too short, causing light rays to focus behind the retina rather than on it, resulting in blurred near vision. Additional symptoms include eyestrain and squinting. It is correcte
An artificial lens that is implanted in the eye, generally after the eye's natural crystalline lens (see Lens, Crystalline) has been removed. IOL's are used on patients suffering from Cataracts or as an alternative to Laser Eye Surgery to correct large visual prescriptions.
The fluid pressure of aqueous humor. Measuring the IOP is important in detecting for and monitoring of Glaucoma.
A pigmented membrane that controls the diameter of the pupil according to ambient lighting conditions.
An inflammation of the cornea, caused by an infection or inflammatory process. Causes can include any or a combination of the following : Bacterial, Amoebic, Viral, Fungal, Onchocercal, Exposure, PhotoUV (Snow Blindness, Arc eye), Ulcerative, Contact
Inflammation of the cornea as well as the conjunctiva. The two commonest forms include Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis and Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca.
More commonly referred to as dry eye syndrome. Normally due to a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture in the eye. Dry eyes are a common complaint amongst Contact Lens wearers.
Seasonal inflammation of the conjunctiva. Also known as Warm Weather conjunctivitis or Spring Catarrh. Strong association with atopy (hayfever, asthma & eczema).
A degenerative disorder of the cornea causing progressive thinning and conical curvature of the cornea leading to decreased vision. Kerataconus is the most common form of Corneal Ectasia. Without medical intervention, keratoconus often causes the perforation (Hydrops) of the cornea requiring a corneal transplant or graft. The exact cause or trigger mechanism is not known, however a strong autosomnal genetic link amongst environmental and cellular factors are indicated. LASIK refractive surgery has also induced keratoconus, see Post-LASIK Ectasia. Corneal Collagen Cross-linking is the only treatment shown to halt the progressive nature of the disorder.
An instrument that measures the curvature of the cornea. Keratometry is relevant to laser and IOL refractive surgery, Keratoconus and contact lens fitting.
Any of several types of corneal transplantation or graft. These are either complete transplants (penetrating keratoplasty) or part grafts (lamellar keratoplasty).
The most popular form of elective refractive treatment. A corneal flap is cut using either a Microkeratome or Femtosecond laser. The flap is folded back before an excimer laser ablates the desired correction. The flap is folded back into position prior to completing treatment. Wound healing is quick, with the epithelium sealing within 24-48 hours. Visual recovery can take from as little as 24hrs up to 2 weeks in some cases. The treatment is popular due to the pain free recovery and quick visual rehabilitation.
Made either of collagen (temporary) or silicone (permanent), punctual plugs are sometimes inserted into the puncta (tear duct) of the lower lid to stop tear drainage.
A procedure using a laser, normally to cauterise blood vessels on the retina. Most commonly used in providing therapeutic treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy and more recently age related macular degeneration.
A structure in the eye that along with the cornea focuses light on the retina. The lens unlike the cornea does this by changing shape. The shape change allows for a change in focal point (accommodation). As the lens ages (38-45 yrs), it starts to los
Full or partial displacement of the eye's lens. Dislocation is commonly associated with a number of systematic syndromes as well as trauma.
An abnormal (white) reflection of the eye. Commonly noted in photos taken with a flash (as opposed to the usual red reflection). While noted in a number of other conditions, Leukocoria is most prominently associated with the eye cancer retinoblastoma
Are surgical incisions of the corneal edge or limbus, often performed during cataract surgery. As opposed to Radial Keratotomy (RK), these incisions are not particularly deep or near the visual field of the eye. These incision are typically made to c
Is a systematic auto-immune disease that causes inflammation and tissue destruction. Lupus is more prevalent in non-europeans and is found much more commonly in women. While Lupus is more noticeable on the dermus, it can have optical symptoms such as
A small area near the centre of the retina which has the greatest density of cone receptor cells necessary for good visual acuity and colour vision.
This condition causes a general deterioration in visual acuity progressing to loss of central vision due to changes in the macular tissue. It usually affects older adults. Research suggests that there may be links to high cholesterol, smoking or a ge
This condition occurs when fluid leaking from retinal blood vessels causes the macula to become swollen. It causes temporary vision loss which may become permanent if untreated.
As we age the vitreous shrinks and this can cause a hole to develop in the macula. This in turn results in blurring, distortion or loss of central vision.
Any deterioration of the macular tissue. Symptoms include blurring, distortion or loss of central vision.
Situated at the base of the eyelashes this gland secretes a lipid substance which constitutes part of the tear film.
This condition occurs when the meibomian glands become inflamed resulting in redness and swelling of the eye. In addition, vision may be blurred and there may be a burning sensation due to poor tear film.
Naturally occurring pigment present in skin and hair as well as the iris of the eye thereby defining eye colour.
The angles relative to the horizontal plane through the centre of the pupil at which the cylindrical powers needs to be set to correct astigmatism.
Distortion of vision whereby straight lines may appear to be curved, objects may be magnified or minified, and depth perception may be impaired.
In the eye these present themselves as small red spots in the retina. They are one of the earliest signs of diabetic retinopathy. They occur as a result of damage to the walls of blood vessels due to high sugar level in the blood. Eventually they can
Abnormal development of the eye where the eye does not grow to its full size resulting in one or both eyes being abnormally small.
A condition characterized by severe headaches which may be accompanied by nausea. In addition patients frequently experience visual disturbances including photophobia, blurred vision, halos round lights and blind spots or tunnel vision. Patients may
Concave lenses in spectacles to correct myopia cause objects to appear reduced resulting in minification.
Where the curvature of the two main meridians of the cornea differ so that one meridian is hyperopic and the other myopic. This results in blurred vision both distance and near.
Refers to monofocal correction in each eye where the dominant eye is corrected for distance vision and the other eye is corrected to a shorter focal length for near vision. Monovision is often used for patients who have presbyopia to reduce the need for separate reading glasses.
A glyco-protein which forms part of the tear film. It increases viscosity of the tear film necessary for effective lubrication of the eye.
Lenses which are designed to have a transition of varying power from the centre of the lens so that presbyopes focus at different distances through different parts of the same lens.
An auto-immune disease which causes voluntary muscles to weaken. Symptoms associated with the eye include diplopia and drooping of one or both eyelids.
Medical term for short-sightedness. It occurs when the axial length of the eye is too long relative to the curvature of the cornea and the power of the lens within the eye. Distant images are focussed in front of the retina and therefore blurred.
A dark lesion with defined outline often called a birthmark or mole. They may be found on the skin as well as in the eye. Generally these lesions are benign but they should be monitored over time in case they change into a melanoma which is a form of
Formation of micro-vascular network of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. It can be associated with over-wear of contact lenses in response to reduced oxygen transmission to the cornea resulting in encroachment of blood vessels into the cornea
Cells which transmit information by electrical or chemical stimulation. They form the core components of the peripheral and central nervous systems and are responsible for stimulus of the sensory organs.
Abbreviation of Oculus Uterque, which means Each Eye and Oculi Unitas which means Both Eyes in Latin.
Herpes of the eye occurs when herpes simplex virus infects the eye. It usually affects the cornea causing inflammation of the tissue. If it occurs in the superficial layers of the cornea it may heal without scarring but if it affects the deeper layer
Abnormally raised Intraocular pressure in absence of damage to the optic nerve or reduction in the field. Patients with ocular hypertension have a greater tendency to develop glaucoma.
Visual disturbances characteristic of migraine without developing the actual headache.
Paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles. It is often caued by neurological disorders. It causes limitation of muscle function which can in turn result in diplopia, ptosis and nystagmus.
Transmits information from the retina to the brain. Photoreceptor cells in the retina respond to light stimulation sending electrical impulses along the optic nerve to the visual cortex where they are interpreted as vision.
Pale disc shaped area on the retina where the ganglion cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve. It is also referred to as the optic disc. As it does not contain any photoreceptors it is the source of the blind spot which naturally occurs in our fi
3D imaging of biological tissue using near infra-red light. It is used in ophthalmology to obtain detailed images within the retina.
Correction of myopia using rigid contact lens worn overnight to reshape the cornea.
Eye muscle imbalance where there is excessive convergence of one or both eyes which can result in diplopia and suppression of image from one eye.
Occurs due to impaired drainage of tears away from the eye through the lacrimal duct as new tears are produced by glands in the eyelids. This overflow can be due to a blocked duct, loss of tension in the eyelids, or poor tear quality.
A transparent thermoplastic which was the original material used to produce rigid contact lenses referred to as hard contact lenses.
A form of refractive surgery in which the epithelial cells are abraded from the corneal surface and then an excimer laser is used to reshape the underlying corneal tissue. Recovery is slow and painful. There is a significant risk of haze developing i
Swelling of the optic disc usually occurs bilaterally and is due to raised intracranial pressure. It does not normally affect visual acuity in acute phase but can damage peripheral field of vision.
It is part of the ciliary body forming the area where sclera and the iris meet on the inside of the eye.
This is a surgical procedure whereby damaged or diseased corneal tissue is replaced by donated tissue as a graft.
Part of the visual field that results from light stimulating the retina outside the fovea.
The lens in the eye is broken down within the capsule in which resides an ultra-sonic device. The lens pieces are then removed by an aspirator which suctions them out. The lens can then be replaced by injecting a new synthetic lens in its place.
An instrument containing different lenses in graduated powers which can be turned in place in mixture of spherical and cylindrical powers to refract the eye and determine correction needed.
The clotting of tissue using a laser which emits light in a specific wavelength. Haemoglobin, a pigment in blood, selectively absorbs light from the visible green wavelength. Lasers which emit light of this wavelength are used to seal off blood vesse
A painful condition caused by over exposure of the eyes to UV radiation. Symptoms include photophobia and pain and temporary loss of vision due to damage to the corneal surface.
Excessive sensitivity to light causing tearing, pain or discomfort in presence of natural or artificial light.
Sparks or flashes of light which are not visual in origin but in fact are due to mechanical stimulation of the light receptors in the retina. It is often associated with post vitreous detachment or retinal detachment. It is also a feature of visual d
Specialized nerve cell found in the retina able to convert light into an electrical impulse. The two principal photoreceptors are the rods and cones.
Chemical compounds that naturally occur in plants that appear to help protect humans against disease and cancer.
A common benign growth on the conjunctiva. It often appears as a yellowish, nodular, thickened lesion on the sclera near the cornea.
A treatment that has no intrinsic value in itself but is used in trials to compare effectiveness of actual treatment to the "pretend treatment".
Literally meaning "flat" this term is used to describe an optical lens that has no focussing power.
Lenses which filter light which is oscilliating in a given direction. This principle is used to filter light from sources such as bodies of water to reduce reflections which would cause glare.
A thermo-plastic polymer used in the manufacture of optical lenses and spectacle frames.
A relatively uncommon condition whereby an over production of chemicals called porphyrin accumulate in the body. Symptoms include urine appearing red in colour, abdominal pain, and damage to the skin as it comes to sunlight and more prone to injury.
The space in the eye between the posterior surface of the iris and ciliary body and anterior to the lens.
Diminished ability to focus at near which is age related. It occurs due to loss of power in the ciliary body and reduced elasticity of the crystalline lens.
Optical lenses that have been designed to correct vision with the appropriate power as indicated by prescription from Optometrist or Ophthalmologist.
Prisms are incorporated in to spectacle lenses to correct muscle imbalances between the eyes. The prism is used to deflect light to alter the position of the image source with respect to the visual axis. They are often used to correct diplopia.
Also referred to as varifocal or multifocal lenses. They are characterized by a gradient of increasing power with correction for distance vision at the top of the lens gradually changing in power to correction for near at the bottom part of the lens.
A complication that commonly develops secondary to retinal detachment. It causes scar tissue to form in sheets which contracts and distorts the retina.
Spectacles or goggles designed to from special materials to protect the eyes from injury.
Biochemical compounds found in the body necessary for cell growth and repair. Protein can be deposited by the tears onto contact lenses causing discomfort in lens wear.
Characterized by deposits of white fibrillogranular material on the anterior lens capsule at the pupil margin. It is considered to be one of the most common causes of glaucoma due to accumulation of pseudoexfoliate material in the trabecular meshwork
A neurological condition characterized by raised intra-cranial pressure in the absence of a tumour. Common symptoms include nausea, headaches, vomiting and tinnitus. Untreated it can cause vision loss due to swelling of the optic disc. It most common
A benign wedge-shaped growth of the conjunctiva on the sclera. It may cause no symptoms or become inflamed causing itchiness and burning sensation. It is most commonly found in people who are more exposed to sunlight and wind. If it grows into the co
Condition in which one or both eyelids droop. It may be due to weakness of the muscle in the upper eyelid, damage to the nerves controlling this muscle or loosening of the tissue in the lid. It can be caused by the aging process, a congenital abnorma
Minute openings located nasally on the lid margins. Tears are drained through these openings into the lacrimal duct.
Small collagen or silicone plugs designed to be inserted in the puncta to block the tear duct. They are used to treat moderate to severe dry eye problems on the basis that they keep tears in the eye for longer periods of time.
Or Rigid Gas Permeable lenses, are a type of contact lens manufactured from oxygen permeable polymers. They are made to custom specifications for each individual eye and when correctly fitted, they encourage the cornea to take up a more regular shape
RK (Radial Keratotomy) is a surgical procedure used to treat patients with moderate myopia. Deep corneal incisions are made with a diamond knife with an aim to flatten the central cornea. It is rarely ever used anymore owing to far more sophisticated
Glasses that magnify for close work or reading. Reading glasses are prescribed for people who are presbyopic.
The change in direction of light rays as they strike the interface between two materials of different refractive index. A measurement of the focusing power of the eye; to determine what power of optical aids are necessary to fully correct an ametrope
An assessment of the degree of ametropia that results in light being focused away from the retina, by the refractive elements of the eye. Measured in dioptres, it is an indication of the severity of myopia, hypermetropia or astigmatism in an eye.
Or Clear Lens Extraction, is a procedure in which the natural crystalline lens in the eye is removed and replaced with an artificial, silicon, intraocular lens of specific power, to correct the refractive error of the eye. The procedure is similar to
Any type of surgical treatment that changes the ability of the eye to focus light, with the intention of reducing any ametropia present. There are various corneal and intraocular treatments available, including
Post refractive surgery, natural changes in the eye can induce a refractive error. In most cases an enhancement procedure can be performed to return the eye to an emmetropic state.
A complex structure of multiple layers of various types of cells, found on the inner, back surface of the eye. Photoreceptors are responsible for detecting light incident on the retina. Various other cells and processes are involved in converting lig
A single layer of hexagonally shaped, pigmented, epithelium cells, forming a boundary between the sensory retina and the choroid. The pigmented cells absorb stray light, preventing any further scattering in the eye. They phagocytose dead and damaged
A condition in which the neurosensory layers of the retina separate from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), allowing vitreous fluid to enter the sub-retinal space. The cells in the detached part of the retina are no longer able to derive nutrients
The term given to a large group of hereditary conditions that are characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, also known as rod-cone dystrophies. It is believed that abnormal production of photoreceptor proteins are the root cause. Most common
A disease affecting prematurely born infants, characterized by abnormal, disorganized growth of retinal vasculature. It is most commonly asymptomatic but can result in permanent loss of vision.
Abnormal splitting of the retinal layers. Classified as either acquired or juvenile Retinoschisis. The former being a degenerative process characterized by separation of the inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers. The latter, a congenital process c
A type of retinal detachment as a result of a break in the retina, allowing vitreous fluid to enter the space between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
An experimental treatment for Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) based on apheresis, in which the blood of the subject is filtered to remove large proteins and cholesterol to improve the blood circulation to cells in the macula of the eye.
An inflammatory disorder of the joints. Symptoms vary but include pain and swelling in joints and stiffness. It is an autoimmune disease which can have complications requiring treatment with an Ophthalmologist and is associated with Sjogren syndrome.
Also known as Onchocerciasis or Robles' Disease, is a parasitic disease where the Onchocerca volvulus infects the patient through the bites of the blackflies of Simulium species which are carriers of its larvae. According to the WHO, it is prevalent
The Sun Protection Factor is a measurement used to represent how much protection a product such as sun-screen provides when applied to skin.
Idiopathic multisystem disease which forms in the lymph nodes, lungs, skin and other areas including eyelid skin, lacrimal gland and sac and nasolacrimal duct. Symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, fever, coughing, uveitis, cranial nerve palsies and
A porous channel at the iridocorneal angle into which the aqueous humour flows via a network of trabeculae. The canal empties into exrtaocular veins. It is itself a vein with thin walls and a very porous endothelial membrane and extends all around th
The fibrous layer forming the outermost covering of the eye is composed of connective tissue and has two regions - the cornea and the sclera. The sclera forms the posterior region of this dense avascular tissue and is seen as the opaque white of the
Inflammation of the sclera which can occur both in anterior or posterior regions. It is known to be associated with systemic disease in about half of patients. Symptoms include pain, swelling, red eyes, photophobia and decreased vision and it is foun
A region of visual field loss (blind spot) within outer relatively normal vision. It is commonly seen after a stroke or brain injury and can be indicative of optic nerve damage. There are different types of pathological scotomas such as central, hemi
A common skin condition which is inflammatory and results in the formation of 'scales' on oily areas of the scalp and inner ear. It is present with redness and itching. It is linked to blepharitis where there can be bacterial growth around the eyelid
A synthetic polymer which is frequently used to manufacture the nose pads of spectacle frames. Some people may have allergies to it and should notify their practitioners so that an alternative can be provided.
A type of optical lens which has the same 'power' throughout the lens in contrast to bifocal or multifocal spectacle lenses.
An inflammation of the mucosal lining of the sinuses of which humans have four pairs - the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid. It is often a result of an infection and can be termed acute or chronic. Symptoms include pressure and pain around th
An autoimmune disorder involved with a type of dry eye disease termed 'aqueous deficient dry eye'. It leads to lacrimal gland dysfunction and a reduced tear production. Symptoms are dry eyes, dry mouth and usually includes an inflammatory component.
A broad title to indicate the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells. If untreated, the cancer cells then spread to other tissues of the body. Different types of skin cancer include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma (whic
A very common method of measuring a subject's vision or visual acuity. The test chart consists of lines of letters of varying size and spacing, with the largest letter at the top and a gradual progression down to the smallest letters at the bottom. T
The most common type of contact lens manufactured using various similar materials of varying water content and permeability.
Broad term referring to various products that are used to clean, disinfect and store contact lenses.
A measure of how often sinusoidal components of a structure repeat per unit of distance.
Refers to the lens form of a spectacle lens or contact lens. As the name suggests, this type of lens only incorporates a spherical power and does not have a cylindrical component.
The first of the Seidal Aberrations, is a result of paraxial rays of light coming to a focus at a different position to the central rays of light when refracted or reflected by an optical medium. This is commonly seen by spectacle wearers as halos or
With respect to the eyes, spots refers to small particulate specks which are noticeable to the patient when they appear within the line of sight and seem to be drifting across their vision. The underlying cause is thought to be the visible collagen o
This is a kind of manufactured hinge for spectacle frames which tends to be more flexible than standard hinges so as to offer better durability for the spectacles.
A complication caused by older, less advanced Lasers and techniques. Subjects complain of halos or streaks of light emerging from bright light sources. These are most common in subjects with large pupils and is compounded in low light conditions. It
Essentially refers to 3D vision. It is the term used to describe the visual process whereby the brain 'fuses' the two images received from each eye which are technically perceived from slightly different vantage points, allowing us to have perception
Broadly defined as a misalignment of the eyes (they can't point at a single object or focus together). It may be horizontal, vertical or comitant or incomitant, latent, manifest or intermittent. Phoria describes a latent deviation and Tropia the mani
As a result of hypertension (high blood pressure) the mean arterial pressure of the patient is greater than the upper range of the accepted normal ranges. This high pressure can rupture major blood vessels in the brain and cause tissue death termed a
A layer of tissue found between Bowman's Membrane and Decemet's Membrane, making up approximately 90% of the corneal thickness. It is composed mainly of collagen fibrils that have a specific, uniform arrangement that make the cornea transparent. Exci
A bacterial infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid or gland of Zeis or Moll. It usually manifests as a subcutaneous nodule (red lump in the eyelid) and can leak fluid. It can be painful and swollen and occasionally can be associated with meibom
A term describing bleeding from blood vessels just below the surface of the sclera. It can usually be seen as a red patch, and can take up to a few weeks to subside depending on the extent of damage to the blood vessels. It can be caused by sudden tr
A type of chronic conjunctivitis which is seen to be prevalent in middle aged females, particularly with underlying thyroid dysfunction pathology. The superior limbus (at junction of the cornea and sclera), the conjunctiva lining it and the eyelid ar
All forms of surgery carry risk factors and it is important to consider these in every individual case, particularly elective procedures. Complications may arise during the procedure itself or post-operatively. In ophthalmic surgeries such as for cat
Also known as Gangliosidosis Type II, is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) disorder owing to a genetic defect on chromosome 15, characterized by a lack of hexosaminidase A which is an enzyme involved in nerve tissue metabolism. The disease is found
The formation of a blood clot inside any vasculature in the body, restricting the flow of blood through the affected area.
A very popular metal used in the manufacture of spectacle frames due to its lightweight, strong and hypoallergenic properties.
A condition in which parasympathetic denervation to the pupil causes it to be less responsive to light and thus is not able to constrict appropriately.
A non evasive, diagnostic tool that creates a digital map of the curvature of the corneal surface. The data is vital in diagnosing and monitoring various corneal abnormalities, such as Keratoconus. Since the cornea is responsible for approximately 70
A type of lens used to correct astigmatism, that incorporates two different powers perpendicular to each other, giving the lens a spherical and cylindrical component. There are different toroidal designs such as tyre, barrel and capstan formations.
An infection caused by the larvae of the roundworm Toxocara canis. Yellowish white granulomas form, often unilaterally. It is associated with papillitis and retinal detachments amongst other scars can remain even after the infection.
A form of retinitis with parasitic innervation - Taxoplasma gondii. It may be congenital or acquired (usually from poorly cooked meat). Symptoms and lesions formed vary between the two forms but retinal necrosis occurs in both. There is a poorer prog
Spongy tissue lined with trabeculocytes, that facilitates drainage of aqueous fluid between the anterior chamber and Canal of Schlemm. There are three layers of meshwork, the inner uveal meshwork, the corneoscleral meshwork and the juxtacanalicular t
A type of chronic infectious conjunctivitis that can be chlamydial. Upper tarsal scarring may be observed with concretions as well as Herbert's pits. Good hygiene and clean water should be prescribed as preventative measures and antibiotics may be us
Sometimes called a 'ministroke', this refers to a change in the blood supply to a particular area of the brain. A TIA can cause fluctuation in vision as well as other symptoms associated with strokes such as paralysis of one side of the body, slurrin
A very broad term referring to any injury as a result of a sudden violence. Trauma to the head can often cause problems with the eyes resulting in loss of vision, blurry vision, double vision, swelling, iris defects and 'black eyes'.
The eyelashes grow towards the eye and can cause irritation and scarring in very serious cases.
A condition characterized by compulsive pulling of hair or eyelashes by the subject.
A type of lens that has three areas, each of a different power, to give the patient optimal vision for distance, intermediate and reading. The power for each part of the lens is prescribed by an optometrist.
UV light refers the a part of the electromagnetic spectrum just outside of the visible spectrum. UV light has shorter wavelength than visible light, but longer wavelength than X-Rays. UV light is known to be harmful to the skin and eyes.
A broad term characterized by inflammation of the uvea. Symptoms include asthenopia, tearing, redness, increased photosensitivity, poor vision and floaters. Some common types of Uveitis are iritis, iridocyclitis, cyclitis, pars planitis and choroidit
A broad term collectively representing any problem or condition affecting the body's vascular system. This can include high blood pressure, a clot, an aneurysm, an embolus. Vascular problems can often have an effect on the eyes, and can cause astheno
A range of conditions referring to the inability of the eye to either turn inwards or outwards. Common symptoms of vergence disorders include asthenopia and double vision.
This refers to Uncorrected Visual Acuity (UCVA). It is determined by the smallest line of letters or symbols that an uncorrected ametrope can correctly identify on a test chart.
This refers to Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA). It is determined by the smallest line of letters or symbols that a fully corrected ametrope or emmetrope can correctly identify on a test chart.
This is the total area a person is able to see when their eyes are fixating on an object. The 'standard observer' has a visual field stretching approximately 60? nasally, 100? temporally, 60? superiorly and 75? inferiorly in each eye.
A very small motorized instrument that is used in surgical procedures to extract the vitreous fluid during a vitrectomy.
The posterior chamber of the eye, between the lens and the retina, is filled with a clear jelly like fluid known as the vitreous humor.
Condition in which the vitreous collapses and separates from the macula and optic disc. It may be localized or total. It is usually caused by aging where the vitreous is liquefied and can also occur more prematurely after cases of trauma, cataract su
Broadly encompasses the presence of blood in the vitreous space. Its symptoms include sudden appearance of floaters or spots and drop in visual acuity. Upon examination there may be a diminished or no view of the fundus in which case ultrasonography
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Offer price of £1200 per eye is valid for:
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